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About surgical robots

Different types of computer-assisted surgical systems can be used for pre-operative planning, surgical navigation and to assist in performing procedures. One type is computer-assisted surgical systems, commonly called robotic-assisted surgical systems or robotic surgery.

These medical devices enable the surgeon to use computer and software technology to control and move surgical instruments through one or more tiny incisions in the patient’s body (minimally invasive) for a variety of surgical procedures. The benefits of computer-assisted surgical systems can include the device’s ability to facilitate minimally invasive surgery and assist with complex tasks in areas of the body that may be difficult to navigate, as well as shorter post-operative recovery times. The device is not actually a robot because it cannot perform surgery without direct human control.

Computer-assisted surgical systems generally have several components, which may include:
1.A console, where the surgeon sits during surgery. The console is the control center of the system and allows the surgeon to view the surgical field and control movement of the surgical instruments and the camera (endoscope) though a 3D monitor;The bedside cart that includes three or four 2.hinged mechanical arms, camera (endoscope) and surgical instruments that the surgeon controls the during surgical procedures;
3.A separate cart that contains supporting hardware and software components, such as an electrical surgical unit (ESU), suction/irrigation pumps, and light source for the endoscope.
Most surgeons use multiple surgical instruments and accessories with the computer-assisted surgical system, such as scalpels, forceps, graspers, dissectors, cautery, scissors, retractors and suction irrigators.

Uses
The FDA has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general surgery cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. Some common procedures that may involve computer-assisted surgical systems are gall-bladder removal, hysterectomy and prostatectomy (removal of the prostate).

Advantages
CAS starts with the premise of a much better visualization of the operative field, thus allowing a more accurate preoperative diagnostic and a well-defined surgical planning, by using surgical planning in a preoperative virtual environment. This way, the surgeon can easily assess most of the surgical difficulties and risks and have a clear idea about how to optimize the surgical approach and decrease surgical morbidity. During the operation, the computer guidance improves the geometrical accuracy of the surgical gestures and also reduces the redundancy of the surgeon’s acts. This significantly improves ergonomy in the operating theatre, decreases the risk of surgical errors and reduces the operating time.